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Wolemba: Jianhua Lv adachokera ku: ''Medicine&Packaging''
Kuchokera: http://www.capsugel.com.cn/aboutjlshow.asp?id=7

Kapisozindi imodzi mwamitundu yakale yamankhwala, yomwe idachokera ku Egypt wakale [1].De Pauli, wamankhwala ku Vienna, adatchula m'buku lake laulendo mu 1730 kuti makapisozi a Oval adagwiritsidwa ntchito kubisa fungo loipa la mankhwala kuti achepetse ululu wa odwala [2].Zaka zoposa 100 pambuyo pake, akatswiri azamankhwala a Joseph Gerard Auguste dublanc ndi Francois Achille Barnabe motors adalandira chiphaso cha kapisozi woyamba wa gelatin padziko lapansi mu 1843 ndikuwongolera mosalekeza kuti agwirizane ndi kupanga mafakitale [3,4];Kuyambira nthawi imeneyo, ma Patent ambiri pa makapisozi opanda kanthu adabadwa.Mu 1931, Arthur Colton wa kampani ya Parke Davis adapanga bwino ndikupanga zida zopangira zokha za kapisozi wopanda pake ndikupanga kapisozi woyamba padziko lonse lapansi wopangidwa ndi makina.Chosangalatsa ndichakuti, mpaka pano, mzere wopangira kapisozi wopanda kanthu wangosinthidwa mosalekeza pamaziko a mapangidwe a Arthur kuti apititse patsogolo luso lazogulitsa komanso kupanga bwino.
Pakali pano, kapisozi wapanga lalikulu ndi mofulumira chitukuko m`munda wa chisamaliro chaumoyo ndi mankhwala, ndipo wakhala mmodzi wa waukulu mlingo mitundu ya m`kamwa olimba kukonzekera.Kuyambira 1982 mpaka 2000, pakati pa mankhwala atsopano ovomerezeka padziko lonse lapansi, mawonekedwe a kapisozi olimba akuwonetsa kukwera.
Chithunzi 1 Kuyambira 1982, mankhwala atsopano a maselo amafananizidwa pakati pa makapisozi ndi mapiritsi

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Ndi chitukuko cha kupanga mankhwala ndi mafakitale a R & D, ubwino wa makapisozi wadziwika kwambiri, makamaka muzinthu izi:

1. Zokonda za odwala
Poyerekeza ndi mitundu ina ya mlingo, makapisozi olimba amatha kubisa fungo loipa la mankhwala ndipo ndi osavuta kumeza.Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ndi mapangidwe osindikizira amapangitsa kuti mankhwala azidziwika bwino, kuti apititse patsogolo kutsata kwamankhwala.Mu 1983, kafukufuku wopangidwa ndi akuluakulu a ku Ulaya ndi America anasonyeza kuti mwa odwala 1000 omwe anasankhidwa, 54% ankakonda makapisozi olimba, 29% anasankha ma pellets opangidwa ndi shuga, 13% okha anasankha mapiritsi, ndipo ena 4% sanasankhe bwino.

2. Kuchita bwino kwa R&D
Lipoti la 2003 tufts linanena kuti mtengo wa kafukufuku wa mankhwala ndi chitukuko unakula ndi 55% kuchokera ku 1995 mpaka 2000, ndipo pafupifupi mtengo wapadziko lonse wa kafukufuku wa mankhwala ndi chitukuko wafika 897 miliyoni US dollars.Monga tonse tikudziwira, mankhwala oyambilira adalembedwa, nthawi yayitali pamsika wamankhwala ovomerezeka ikhala, ndipo phindu latsopano lamankhwala m'mabizinesi azachipatala lidzakula kwambiri.Pafupifupi chiwerengero cha othandizira omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito mu makapisozi anali 4, omwe adachepetsedwa kwambiri poyerekeza ndi 8-9 pamapiritsi;Zinthu zoyeserera za makapisozi ndizochepa, ndipo mtengo wa kukhazikitsa njira, kutsimikizira ndi kusanthula ndi pafupifupi theka la mapiritsi.Choncho, poyerekeza ndi mapiritsi, nthawi ya chitukuko cha makapisozi ndi osachepera theka la chaka wamfupi kuposa mapiritsi.
Nthawi zambiri, 22% yazinthu zatsopano zofufuza zamankhwala ndi chitukuko zitha kulowa m'mayesero azachipatala a gawo I, omwe osachepera 1/4 amatha kudutsa gawo lachitatu la mayeso azachipatala.Kuwunika kwa mankhwala atsopano kungachepetse bwino mtengo wa kafukufuku watsopano wa mankhwala ndi mabungwe a chitukuko mwamsanga.Chifukwa chake, makampani opanga makapisozi padziko lonse lapansi apanga makapisozi opangira makoswe (pccaps) oyenera kuyesa makoswe ®); Zida zodzazitsa zocheperako (xcelodose) zoyenera kupanga zitsanzo zamakapisozi azachipatala ®), Ndipo makapisozi akhungu awiri (dbcaps) oyenera kwa mayesero akuluakulu azachipatala ®) Ndi mitundu yonse ya zinthu zothandizira Kuchepetsa ndalama za R & D ndikuwongolera bwino kwa R & D.
Kuphatikiza apo, pali mitundu yopitilira 9 ya makapisozi amitundu yosiyanasiyana, omwe amapereka zosankha zingapo pamapangidwe a mlingo wamankhwala.Kukula kwa ukadaulo wokonzekera ndi zida zofananira kumapangitsanso kapisozi kukhala yoyenera kuphatikizika ndi zinthu zina zapadera, monga mankhwala osasungunuka m'madzi.Kusanthula kukuwonetsa kuti 50% yazinthu zatsopano zomwe zimapezedwa kudzera pakuwunika kwambiri komanso chemistry yophatikizika sizisungunuka m'madzi (20%) μ G / ml), makapisozi odzaza madzi ndi makapisozi ofewa amatha kukwaniritsa zofunikira za kukonzekera kwapawiri.

3. Mtengo wotsika mtengo
Poyerekeza ndi mapiritsi, msonkhano wa GMP wopangira makapisozi olimba uli ndi ubwino wa zida zochepetsera, kugwiritsa ntchito malo okwera, masanjidwe omveka bwino, nthawi zochepa zoyendera popanga, kuwongolera kocheperako, oyendetsa pang'ono, chiopsezo chochepa cha kuwonongeka kwa mtanda, chosavuta. njira yokonzekera, njira zochepetsera zopangira, zida zosavuta zothandizira komanso zotsika mtengo.Malinga ndi kuyerekezera kwa akatswiri ovomerezeka, mtengo wokwanira wa makapisozi olimba ndi 25-30% kutsika kuposa mapiritsi [5].
Ndi kukula kwakukulu kwa makapisozi, makapisozi opanda kanthu, monga chimodzi mwazothandizira zazikulu, amakhalanso ndi ntchito yabwino.Mu 2007, kuchuluka kwa malonda a makapisozi opanda kanthu padziko lapansi kudaposa 310 biliyoni, pomwe 94% ndi makapisozi a gelatin, pomwe ena 6% adachokera ku makapisozi omwe sianyama, omwe kukula kwake kwapachakahydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) makapisozi opanda kanthukuposa 25%.
Kuwonjezeka kwakukulu kwa malonda a makapisozi osapangidwa ndi nyama kukuwonetsa momwe anthu amagwiritsidwira ntchito polimbikitsa zinthu zachilengedwe padziko lapansi.Ku United States kokha, mwachitsanzo, pali anthu 70 miliyoni omwe "sanadyepo zinthu zochokera ku nyama", ndipo 20% ya anthu onse ndi "odya zamasamba".Kuphatikiza pamalingaliro achilengedwe, makapisozi opanda zinyama opangidwa ndi dzenje alinso ndi mawonekedwe awoawo apadera.Mwachitsanzo, HPMC dzenje makapisozi ndi otsika kwambiri madzi okhutira ndi kulimba zabwino, ndi oyenera nkhani ndi hygroscopicity ndi tilinazo madzi;Pullulan hollow capsule imasweka mwachangu ndipo imakhala ndi mpweya wochepa kwambiri.Ndizoyenera kuchepetsa zinthu zamphamvu.Makhalidwe osiyanasiyana amapangitsa kuti zinthu zosiyanasiyana za kapisozi zikhale zopambana m'misika inayake komanso magulu azogulitsa.

MALONJE
[1] La Wall, CH, zaka 4000 za pharmacy, mbiri yakale ya pharmacy ndi sayansi yogwirizana, JB Lippincott Comp., Philadelphia / London / Montreal, 1940
[2] Feldhaus, FM: Zur Geschichte der Arzneikapsel.Dtsch.Apoth.-Ztg, 94 (16), 321 (1954)
[3] Französisches Patent Nr.5648, Erteilt am 25. März 1834
[4] Planche und Gueneau de Mussy, Bulletin de I'Académie Royale de Médecine, 442-443 (1837)
[5] Graham Cole, Kuwunika Mtengo Wachitukuko ndi Kupanga : Mapiritsi Otsutsana ndi Capsugels.Laibulale ya Capsugel


Nthawi yotumiza: May-10-2022